How to Increase MEMORY_TARGET
Before you can increase memory in oracle database, you must first understand four oracle memory parameters which govern the instance.
If you set MEMORY_TARGET, they oracle will perform AMM (automatic memory management) and both SGA + PGA are managed within the allocated memory. No need to touch SGA_TARGET / SGA_MAX_SIZE parameters.
SGA_TARGET and SGA_MAX_SIZE
The SGA_TARGET defines the total size of SGA and SGA_MAX_SIZE define the total max RAM SGA_TARGET can take. Example, if server RAM is 10 GB, SGA_TARGET is 3 GB and SGA_MAX_SIZE is 5 GB. This means that during heavy workloads, Oracle can max assign 5 GB RAM to SGA.
SGA_TARGET parameter is a dynamic parameter
show parameter sga_target; alter system set sga_target = 10G;
SGA_MAX_SIZE is a static parameter and cannot be changed immediately
show parameter sga_max_size; alter system set sga_max_size = 12G scope=spfile;
MEMORY_TARGET and MEMORY_MAX_TARGET
From 11g onward, you do not need to manage SGA and PGA separately. You can allocate MEMORY_TARGET parameter and oracle will handle both SGA + PGA. You do not even need to set SGA_TARGET or SGA_MAX_SIZE.
Let us assume we have 16 GB RAM on a server and we want to allocate 5 GB to Oracle. This can be simple done by setting MEMORY_TARGET to 5 GB. MEMORY_MAX_TARGET defines the maximum value MEMORY_TARGET can go.
MEMORY_TARGET is a dynamic parameter
show parameter memory_target; alter system set memory_target = 5G;
MEMORY_MAX_TARGET is a static parameter
show parameter memory_max_target; alter system set memory_max_target = 7G scope=spfile;
If you set MEMORY_TARGET
SGA_TARGET, SGA_MAX_SIZE and PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET are set to 0, 60% of memory mentioned in MEMORY_TARGET is allocated to SGA and rest 40% is kept for PGA
SGA_TARGET and PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET are set to non-zero values, these values will be considered minimum values.
SGA_TARGET is set to non zero value and PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET is not set. Still these values will be autotuned and PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET will be initialized with value of (MEMORY_TARGET-SGA_TARGET).
PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET is set and SGA_TARGET is not set. Still both parameters will be autotunes. SGA_TARGET will be initialized to a value of (MEMORY_TARGET-PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET).
Query to find memory used by oracle
select decode( grouping(nm), 1, 'total', nm ) nm, round(sum(val/1024/1024)) mb from ( select 'sga' nm, sum(value) val from v$sga union all select 'pga', sum(a.value) from v$sesstat a, v$statname b where b.name = 'session pga memory' and a.statistic# = b.statistic# ) group by rollup(nm);
Query to find SGA components size
A very simple query to display SGA components size in Oracle database
SELECT * FROM v$sgainfo;