• Arun Kumar

Users, Roles & Profiles in Oracle

Users are the ultimate End-People who will be using Oracle database. Before a user can access the database, the DBA must create the user inside the database and grant necessary permissions.


By just creating a new user will not make the new user access the database. There are necessary roles and privileges that must be assigned to the user


Oracle User Management


By just creating a new user will not make the new user access the database. There are necessary roles and privileges that must be assigned to the user.


To check all users inside database

SQL> select username, account_status, default_tablespace from dba_users;

To check current user

SQL> show user;

To Lock / Unlock user

SQL> alter user scott account unlock;
SQL> alter user scott account lock;

To Create new user

SQL> create user usr1 identified by usr1;

To create new user by assigning a default tablespace

SQL> create user usr2 identified by usr2 default tablespace users;

To change user password

SQL> alter user usr1 identified by oracle;

Check Database Default Tablespace


When you create a new user without specifying a default tablespace, database default tablespace is assigned to the user. Use below command to find database default tablespace

SQL> select PROPERTY_NAME, PROPERTY_VALUE from database_properties where PROPERTY_NAME like '%DEFAULT%';

Change User Default Tablespace


Use below command to change default tablespace of a user

SQL> alter user usr1 default tablespace example;
Note: The objects created in the old tablespace remain unchanged even after changing a default tablespace for a user

Tablespace Quota


You can specify a limit onto how much tablespace quota (size) a user can use

SQL> Alter user usr1 quota 10M on users;
Note: Allocating quota doesn’t represent reserving the space. If 2 or more users are sharing a tablespace, quota will be filled up in first come first serve basis


Roles in Oracle


When you create a new user, you must at least assign CREATE SESSIONS privilege so the user can connect to the database

grant create session to usr1;

When you work in real-time, there are more than one permission which must be assigned to a user. Sometimes the list might be very big. For example, there is a manager who must be able to perform:

  • Insert into EMP & DEPT table

  • Update DEPT table

  • Delete from BONUS table

Instead of giving above privileges to the user one by one, we can create a role inside the database. We then assign all privileges to the role and then assign the role to a user. It makes your life easy!


Create New Role


Use below command to create new role inside the database

SQL> CREATE ROLE SALES_MANAGER;

Grant Privileges to Role


Assign all the privileges to the role NOT THE USER

SQL> GRANT INSERT ON SCOTT.EMP TO SALES_MANAGER;
SQL> GRANT INSERT ON SCOTT.DEPT TO SALES_MANAGER;
SQL> GRANT UPDATE ON SCOTT.DEPT TO SALES_MANAGER;
SQL> GRANT DELETE ON SCOTT.BONUS TO SALES_MANAGER;

Grant Role to a User


Now that you have assigned all the necessary privileges to a role, its time to assign the role to a user

SQL> GRANT SALES_MANAGER TO USR1;


Profile Management in Oracle


A profile is a way to control system resource that can be used by a database user. Profile management is of two types

  • Password management

  • Resource management

Password Management


The password management allows a DBA to have more control over user passwords. Some of the parameters you might be familiar in general like failed login attempts, password lock time etc

  • FAILED_LOGIN_ATTEMPTS: How many times a user can fail to login

  • PASSWORD_LOCK_TIME: Users who exceed failed login attempts, their password will be locked for specific time

  • PASSWORD_LIFE_TIME: Till when password is valid in days

  • PASSWORD_GRACE_TIME: Grace period for user to change password, else account will be locked

  • PASSWORD_REUSE_TIME: After how many days user can re-use same password

  • PASSWORD_REUSE_MAX: Specify how many times old password can be used

  • PASSWORD_VERIFY_FUNCTION: Defines rules for setting a new password

Resource Management


Resource management helps in limiting the database abuse a user can cause. For example, if a user connects to database and never runs a query then this ideal connection will take system resources like CPU. To restrict such kind of issues, we have resource management parameters

  • SESSIONS_PER_USER: How many concurrent sessions user can open

  • IDLE_TIME: Total time user can stay inside database without doing any activity

  • CONNECT_TIME: Total time user can stay inside database whether idle of active

Note: resource management parameters will take in effect only if RESOURCE_LIMIT parameter is set to TRUE.

Use below command to check the RESOURCE_LIMIT parameter

SQL> show parameter resource_limit;

By default the parameter is set to FALSE. You can change it via below

SQL> alter system set resource_limit=TRUE scope=both;

To create a new user profile

SQL> create profile my_profile limit
failed_login_attempts 3
password_lock_time 1
sessions_per_user 1
idle_time 5;
Note: password lock time by default is for 1 day. You can specify it in minutes (n/1440) or even in seconds (n/86400)

To assign profile to a user

SQL> alter user scott profile my_profile;

To check profiles assigned to a user

SQL> SELECT USERNAME, PROFILE FROM DBA_USERS WHERE USERNAME='SCOTT';

To check profile parameter values

SQL> SELECT * FROM DBA_PROFILES WHERE PROFILE='&PROFILE_NAME';


Find User Permissions


To check system privileges granted to a user

select privilege from dba_sys_privs where grantee='SCOTT';

To check object level privileges granted to a user or role

SQL> select owner, table_name, privilege from dba_tab_privs where grantee='SALES_CLERK';

To check roles assigned to a user

select granted_role from dba_role_privs where grantee='SCOTT';

To check permissions assigned to role

select privilege from role_sys_privs where role='SALES_CLERK';
select owner, table_name, privilege from role_tab_privs where role='SALES_CLERK';

To check roles granted to another role

SQL> select granted_role from role_role_privs where role='SALES_CLERK';


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